Click for more information about Chad
2011 Jan by Peter Kuiper
My first trip to Chad was in Jan. 1990 on the way from Niger to Burundi. We planned to go southbound from N\\\'Djamena and reach the Central African Republik. We came from Maiduguri in Nigeria and took a bushtaxi to the Cameroon border. It was a good road and real quick. We had no problems with the Nigeria - Cameroon border, but when we reached the Cameroon - Chad border in the afternoon, the Cameroon guard in charge told us that the border was closed. Of course this was nonsense, he wanted a bribe. We payed some money and than he drove us personally with his moterbike through the no-mens-land to the Chad checkpoint, where we entered the country without a problem.
We stayed two nights at the \\\"Novotel la Tchadienne\\\" where my dear colleague Iris from the reservation office at the InterContinental Berlin had succeeded to get us a 50% rate reduction. (still expensive: CFA32.000 = $115 )
The town was lovely, enormous mango trees make the town green and shady, and still had a strong colonial atmosphere. Exept for the hotel, we did not take any pictures as there seemed to be police everywhere. Twice we had dinner in a wonderful Chinese restaurant, located in an old French house on the Ave. Charles de Gaulle.
We tried to find out if there were any busses going south, but this did not seem the case. The only possibility seemed to be to get on a truck. We went to a truckstop south of the city, but did not find any transport going south, so we decided to travel south through Cameroon.
Of course our Cameroon visa had expired by travelling the little stretch from the Nigerian to the Chad border (about one hour on a good road). We gave it a try and after getting our exit stamps from Chad we walked to the Cameroon checkpoint. We were lucky to see the same officer in charge and after some discussion that our visa had not really expired as we had only used it for the one hour in transit, we payed him another expensive bribe of about DM80 per Person and he let us enter Cameroon once more.
My second trip to Chad took place in January 2011.
In the Internet I had found a travel agent (www.desertreisen.de) who offered organized trips to the Sahara region, and booked a trip to Sudan. Unfortenately the trip was cancelled due to lack of customers. They offered me to join the 18 day Chad tour at about the same time. ( €3.480 )
Day 01 and 02.
The trip started late evening at the airport in Frankfurt where I met my fellow travellers at check-in. The next morning we had a two hour stop in Addis Abeba. We reached N\\\'Djamena around noon.
At the airport we were picked up by jeeps and drove to the office of \\\"Tchad Evasion\\\" that executed our trip. After the paperwork and the registration with the police we chose a jeep and our bags were loaded on top. As I did not know anybody it was pure luck that the other three guys in the jeep were nice and we got along quite well.
The daily routine was the same the whole trip, the scenery changed every day: get up at daybreak, pull down and pack the tent and the bags and bring everything to the jeep. Breakfast on one long table, often with a nice view and in the windshade of the four jeeps. After breakfast a walk of about 30 - 60 minutes to enable the crew to finish packing. Then the jeeps came along to continue the tour. After a few hours drive and foto stops on the way we had an afternoon break for about two hours (too long) and usualy reached our campsite just before sunset (too late).
We drove on one of the few metalled roads about 150km in North-Easterly direction and looked for a place to camp near the village of Massakory. The first site had too much \\\"cram cram\\\" (Le monde végétal peut etre un obstacle : le fameux cram cram est une herbe sèche, rasante, et truffée de minuscules boules piquantes.) It got dark when we found a better site and I had problems to build up my tent in the dark.
In the morning we walked to the village and made a lot of pictures of the people and the one story Sudanese style houses, all of them with the typical elevated corners.
What I saw in this village and would see in many, many other villages in the country were wells build by the EU. In my opinion this is a rediculous kind of help as nature does not support so much cattle and often the vegetation around the wells was totally destroyed.
Around noon we passed some time in the small town of Moussoro 130km past Massakory and 200km before Salal. It was a relaxed place, I could take some pictures.
In the wadi of the \\\"Bahr el Ghazal\\\" we had lunch under a big acacia: a big salat with baguette and water melon. Further Northeast a village celebrated the 50th anniversary of the state. All men and boys were dressed in white jellabiyas with white turbans, all women and girls with wrapped in colourful, mainly red, fabrics.
On the way we bought some firewood, I understand that we needed energy to cook. What I did not understand is that a campfire was made every night, just like that, only to stare into the flames. Just before sunset we found a place to camp near the town of Salal. Here the countryside was flat and dry. Only some green - for cattle indigestible - shrubs surrounded us.
We made a walk around our camp and found a lot of broken pottery fragments. Some might have been here hundreds or thousands of years, amazing! A small herd of about ten camels passed by. How can they survive in such a dry environment!
Back on track our four jeeps advenced with an amazing speed. Without any problems the jeeps drove 70km or more on the desert floor. Suddenly we came to a stop. The engine of one of the jeeps was boiling. A bolt of the toothed belt was broken. With a big hammer and a stone as an anvil a big screw was changed into a five sided bolt and put into place with the car jack through the weight of the jeep. I used the break to photograph nature around me - some low rock formations, acacia trees and even a species of dung beetle at work - and do some exersize.
Nature had changed into a complete desert now, no sign of life anywhere! Like a miracle three or four lonely acacia trees appeared in front of us. We enjoyed our lunchstop in their shade. After lunch we drove with up to 90km an hour through the perfectly flat desert. Even here, with not a trace of vegetation, we were passing herds of camels of up to several dozens of animals. A few trucks with lots of people on top of the load encountered us. Trucks seem to be the only way of public transport in this part of the country, I did not see any busses.
The repaired jeep spluttered again. We were happy to reach the settlement of Kouba Olanga. Here we got water and gas, and the staff tried to fix the technical problem. The people of Kouba were quite relaxed, I made some nice pictures of the scattered houses, people drying mudbricks in the sun and children getting water from the well with their donkeys. I wondered how people were able to survive here. Most likely only because of its water. The well is the last water point for at least 300 kilometres in all directions. This makes it a vital – in the strictest sense of the word – stopping-off point for the countless camel trains that plod their way across this part of the Sahara. Kouba Olanga has a, mostly nomadic, population of 2,000 to 3,000 people and the sandy vastness that surrounds it is liberally scattered with the bleached bones of those animals unable to reach its precious water points in time.
Happy not having to spend the rest of my life in this place, we left the track and drove in an Easterly direction. We camped in a dreary countryside with little vegetation. At night a storm came up. It seemed that I had not properly attached my ropes. My tent almost completely collapsed. Only the weight of my bags and of myself prevented it from taking off and blowing away. The next morning the tent was completely covered and filled with sand.
The morning gave us a short respite of the storm. After breakfast we did not make our customary walk. There was no place to walk to in the sand covered landscape. Shortly after departure the storm regained its force. Everything around us, the air and the sky turned yellow. We saw some camels through the haze, walking around as if everything was normal. At a deserted well we made some pictures. The sand prevented the lens of my camera to open, fortunately I managed to blow the sand out later on.
After a few hours the sky cleared up from one minute to an other. Here it was green. The earth was covered with \\\"bitter apple\\\" (Citrullus colocynthis). The plant grows with vine-like stems in all directions. Although not poisenous it does not seem to be appreciated by cattle as it tastes extremely bitter.
We had a peaceful lunch under a big acacia tree with crunching macarony with tuna fish. All around us, passing in different directions, were herds of goats and camels. The extent of overgrazing in this country is horrifying.
Shortly after we passed the military fort of Oum Chalouba, we saw the first rocks along the road. Everybody was thrilled and made lots of pictures of these insignificant stones. So many would follow!
Mid afternoon we arrived in Oum Chalouba. This was a bigger settlement. I made pictures from the donkeys transporting water to peoples houses. Some of the poor beasts almost broke together under the heavy load. We spend the night within a walled compound near the city, not very romantic.
Somehow our tourleader managed to get the broken jeep replaced. The next morning the new jeep came and we had no futher technical problems during this trip.
Today our walk went along the outskirts of Oum Chalouba. Even here, so far from the rest of the world, the first vestiges of the industrialized world were clearly visible: plastic water bottles, coke cans and colourful plastic bags were scattered along our path. After half an hour we reached some stones, another sign that the Ennedi-Plateau couldn\\\'t be far.
Soon after we had boarded our jeeps again a huge needle appeared at the horizon. Long it seemed as if we were heading for this steep sandstone rock. Than I had to see that we were changing our direction and that we were not getting any closer. I was so disappointed! Later I understood that this mountain was nothing special. At the Ennedi-Plateau there are needles, odd rockformations and arches all over the place!
As the narrow irregular red strip at the horizon grew wider I could not believe my eyes. I had never seen anything like this! Massive rocks were standing around in the dry undulating grasslands, each of them like an unconquerable fort. We had some time to make pictures. I tried to get near one of them, but soon realized that the whole scale was so enormous, it would take for ever to get close to the rocks.
We had our lunch in the shade of a narrow valley basin - couscous, mixed with tomatoes and served with sardines - and time to climb the rocks in the neighbourhood. Fantastic!
We drove through a fantastic scenery, along mountains and rockformations, through acacia forests and passed through some canyons. At last we approached a massive wall of rocks where we would spend the night. Everybody could look for a nice intimate place to pitch his tent.
The Ennedi-Plateau is more populated than the surrounding deserts. The mountains seem to get more precipitation, it is greener here. Near our breakfast table some women were sitting in the sand and tried to sell souvenirs to the rare tourists. I bought a dagger and some silver jewellery. After finishing our breakfast a young boy was our guide into the \\\"Guelta d\\\'Archei\\\". At the end of this canyon we had to climb some rocks to get to a viewpoint to see camals drinking water further down in a deep and dark stretch of this gorge and to see some of the last seven Saharan sweet water crocodiles in a pond below us. (I saw one!)
We hiked back through the beautiful canyon to our camp, where we were picked up by the jeeps. Now we drove around this massive mountain to enter the canyon from the other side. Till now, I had not realized that so many camels had come here to drink. The whole scenery was just amazing. When I travelled through Ethiopia some years back, I thought \\\"this is like two thousand years ago when Jesus lived on earth\\\" here in Chad I had the feeling to walk around through Abrahams time.
After lunch at the entrance of the canyon and feeling like sitting along a camel highway, we continued our tour. We saw centuries old rockpaintings, beautiful sceneries and finally ended at a huge natural arch.
We went to a well to get water (liquid micropur made it safe to drink it after one hour) got a hairwash and found a beautiful camp among the most spectacular rockformations, some looking like elephants.
I made a walk before and after breakfast along these spectacular rocks. Today\\\'s jeeptour was also beautiful, I could have made a thousand pictures. We ended up at a natural arch many times higher than the one we had seen yesterday.
Now we came to an area where the rock had weathered the stone into filigree pillars. Some pillars resembled the chimneys on the roof of an old French or British castle.
We had lunch under the enormous palmtrees of another canyon. Here the Ennedi was quite green. The meadows were yellow and dry now, but actually covered the earth completely. In the rainy season it must be beautiful here (but also impassable).
The night we spend in a place like the cratar of a vulkano. We were on a meadow surrounded by a round mountain of red stone, accept for the narrow canyon where we had entered. We enjoyed a very peaceful full moon night here.
Today a lady appeared out of nothing and brought camelmilk for the drivers. Our stay in this empty land never went unnoticed.
Later this day we saw a whole range of strange mountain structures: holes in thick rocks, gateways, elephant trunks, chimneys and pillars. Nature has a lot of fantasy in the Ennedi.
Suddely after criss-crossing the area we stood in front of the mountain pillar we had seen before we arrived at the Ennedi-Plateau.
Today we had lunch in our third canyon. This one was quite bare, but also had a well for the camels. A less than one meter wide canyon led us behind the mountain to a narrow valley with single trees and a blue water pond. Pure peace and silence!
The valleys got wider now, behind the rocks were other ranges and behind them rocks again. Absolutely amazing! Tonight\\\'s camp was absolutely out of this world. We were quite high up and looked down on a never ending collection of rocks, walls and pillars up to the horizon. We had reached this campsite quite early and so I had a lot of time to make pictures. When the sun was setting, the full moon was rising and there was a moment that they opposed each other perfectly.
After our breakfast walk it was time to say goodbay to the Ennedi-Plateau. I was depressed. It was only the tenth day of our tour and already we were leaving the best part of the trip. I did not realize what was ahead of us....
We drove into Fada and had some time to see the town. It was quite nice actually. I would have loved to make some pictures, but I was blocked to do so. In Africa I had too many bad experiences with the police. I cannot fight against my fear anymore. I have no more nervs for African prisons. So I enjoyed the Sahel style buildings, the colourful women, the white dressed men and the green palm trees without photographing.
Our next encounter was a miracle. From the right a huge classical caravan was approaching. About seventy camels were transporting salt in animal skins. Nothing was modern here! No plastic, no modern fabrics! This was such a treat! So much luck! Our drivers walked towards them to give them tea and sugar as a present and also to ask them if we were allowed to make pictures.
In two or three lines they were walking towards us between Acacia trees and in front of the Ennedi foothills. These were to become some of my best pictures ever! The five or six cameleers waved at us as they passed. Far to quickly they disappeared in the endless distantness of the desert. Only in the winter months, when the heat is bearable, you can see caravans like this one.
When we had lunch later on in the shade of a huge rock, we saw the caravan again passing by in the distance. Our picknick area had been quite nice, what followed was a long strech of booring flat landscapes. The sun was slowly setting and I was wondering about our next camp. It surprised me that we passed some spectacular isolated standing rockformations. They could have been a nice backdrop for our tents. Instead we camped at a windy and rocky place when it was nearly dark. I really wondered why?
This night was the worst. I had chosen my camping spot, because it was flat and sandy. It turned out to be most unprotected against the wind. That night the tent was laying on me like a blanket, sand came through all the cracks and zippers, it was just misserable. The next morning the others complained that my tent had made so much noise!
Our walk after breakfast led us through a mountain pass between two steep black braun mountain ranges. This had always been the only possible pass between the North and the South of the country. During the war the pass had been mined. For our safety we were not allowed to leave the track.
The pass had brought us to a different part of the country. Now we saw less and less rocks and ever more sand. Here in the Mourdi Depression you really get the feeling to be in the Sahara: there are sand dunes all over the place. It is hard to climb the dunes. One step up means half a step down. After an hour or so the wind wipes out your path and the dune looks perfect again.
After passing this ocean of sand we reached some rocky surface again with a few acacia trees. We had our lunch in the shade of the biggest tree.
We passed another stretch of soft sand where we got stuck several times. But the crew always succeeded to dig us out.
We spend the night just before the saltmines of Demi.
We visited the little town of Demi. Lots of people came to see us. Women and children sat down around our jeeps and tried to sell us some souvenirs. I got another dagger and some silver juwelary again. Later we watched how the women dig into the sand to find the saltrocks. The red salt from Demi is still transported by camel caravans around the Sahara.
After crossing a fast stretch of flat stony desert, we noticed a green stripe at the horizon: we had reached the first of the Ounianga lakes, the biggest fossile lakes in the Sahara. The water seems to be very salty, never the less palmtrees grow very well here: a whole forest grows around the lake. These trees grow dates and just outside the vegetation area there are graneries on stilts to store the crop.
The crew had a lot of problems with our jeeps now, either they sank into the soft sand or something went wrong with one of the engines. They always knew how to fix things though.
In the afternoon we reached another Ounianga lake. Here there was not too much vegetation, just reed and a couple of lonely palmtrees, but the scenery was just beautiful. Here we had one of our nicest lunchstops and the two hours along the lake were well spend.
In late afternoon we reached another Ounianga lake. Here there was quite a big village. I bought three moslem scarfes. In a garden the crew bought fresh salat and tomatoes. It was amazing that nobody of our group got sick.
High up above the lake we camped on the side of a rock. Here there was no wind, we were out of reach of the flies and had a beautiful view on the lake. As the sun set over the lake I noticed three donkeys trodding up the hill. They also spend the night outside the vegetation zone.
At sunrise, the view from our camp on the big lake was just beautiful. We drove through the green gardens along the lake and had to pass another stretch of Sahara until we reached a very small lake surrounded by thick green foliage, golden dunes and reddish rock formations. It was so beautiful here! I could not stop taking pictures.
Another stretch of desert followed. No life at all here, just sand and reddish rocks. Our car made a strange rumbling sound: we had a flat tyre. We all got off and strange enough that there was one small acacia next to us. We had not seen any trees for hours, and now, just as we had a break to change the wheel there was this little tree to offer us some shade.
Back on the move we reached our last lake. This most westerly of the lakes we visited must have been the biggest as well. An enormous stretch of water in the middle of the desert was glittering in the bright sun. On the rocks higher up there was quite a big village, but I saw very few people. A part of the houses seemed to have been abandoned by its inhabitants. The shore was only partly green here, mostly it was just reed or a scattered palmtree here and there. The crew managed to get gas and water in this lost village and from now on we were on the way home.
After travelling south for many hours through booring landscapes - completely devoid of vegetation - we found half a dozen of acacias, all standing on their own in the endless desert. We had our lunch here. We wouldn\\\'t be the first ones though to pick this place for a picknick. Under \\\"our\\\" tree there was a whole pile of rubbish. I counted 18 pieces: cans, plastic bottles, some metal scrap and even a slipper of a lady! Why don\\\'t people take their trash with them?
Our lunchbreak was too long again, I had time to make pictures from all six trees, some herbs and from the sand that actually consisted out of millions of tiny little colorfull stones.
That night our camp was in the middle of nowhere. I think that the crew had started too late to look for a cozy place. Just a small oasis of about 30 acacias kept our company.
After our morning walk we drove further south. A black dott at the horizon caught our eyes. It was a tank! It must have been hit by heavy fire as the top part had been blown off completely.
Now we came to a complete different scenery: here and there, small hills seemed to consist out of pitchblack rocks piled up in the yellow sands of the Sahara. Sometimes we drove over perfectly flat stretches of snow white plaster. This black / yellow / white scenery went on for quite some time. A few times one of our four jeeps got stuck in the sand. One time we lost the others out of sight. Our driver Omar had to climb on a rock to see in which direction the others had gone. Thank God we catched up again. Suddenly there was one little acacia in the middle of this remote area. We made a stop there to make pictures.
We had our lunch at the smallest oases I have ever seen. It was not a single acacia as we had seen at various places now, but a big acacia with all kinds of shrubs around it. A few meters further there were some big palmtrees and some distance away there were conifers creeping over the desert. The place was magic. I made lots of pictures here.
Many hours of booring desert followed, than we came to a 70km long oasis: Faya. Here they live traditionally of the trade of salt and dates, but now the presence of the militairy seems to be more important. As always when I see power of the state I cut back on photographing. I made pictures again when we found a beautiful dune at sunsett. It was almost too late to set up the tent so I decided to sleep outside.
I had enjoyed this night outside. It did get cool at night, but I had my super warm sleeping bag with me, the one that had made me survive my treks in Nepal. At night Orion was the compagnion of my dreams.
In the morning we scrambled up the sandy crescent. It looked quite torn after a while, but the wind puts it all back in shape.
On the way south we travelled a long time over a perfectly flat piece of desert. This seemed to be a kind of highway. Every couple of hundred meters a barrol marked the track. We saw more trucks now. One or two seemed to have had an accident or their vehicle had broken down, their enormous load, sometimes two or three times the size of the truck itself spread out next to them. Also a lot of camels were trekking north. They all seemed to be well fed in the south and were now on their long trek to the abattoirs in Lybia and Egypt.
This was the only time we did not find a tree for our afternoon break. We had our lunch in the shade of the jeeps and watched a huge flock of camels in front of us. As a few of us came too close to the herd to make pictures - still hundreds of meters away - the herdsman came into our direction shaking his fist.
Later on we met an other tourgroup from \\\"Tchad Evasion\\\" who were doing the same tour clockwise. One of our drivers joined them and we got one of their drivers. I wondered how it is possible to meet each other in a big empty country like this one.
For the night we found a beautiful sanddune: a perfect yellow crescent on a flat floor of white plaster.
Now we follow the track we had driven before in reversed direction. We had lunch in Mousouro and pitched our tent in a forested area. Here there were villages and people everywhere. There were also a lot of flies. We had left the desert and were now in the sahel area.
We chose a slightly different way to get back to N\\\'Djamena. We were shown some villages and gardens where farmers could grow tomatoes and beans with the help of the wells in their gardens. Our crew bought some firewood to take home.
Soon we reached the road and a few hours later we were back in the capital city. This very evening we would fly back to Europe.
We were brought to a hotel behind the \\\"Tchad Evasion\\\" office. Here we could use the rooms to take a shower. We had some free time and with one of my fellow travellers I made a tour along the luxury hotels in town. In the outskirts of town we had a look in the newly erected Kempinski Hotel (with financial aid from Ghadaffi). Than back to the Novotel where I had stayed so many years earlier. It had not changed. We had a beer along the pool. In their souvenisshop I found a little \\\"Dogon\\\" door.
In the afternoon we made a walk through town. I bought some bronze animals as a souvenir. We saw the mosk, the church, the market.
We would have our evening meal in the \\\"Carnivore\\\". This turned out to be a night club under the stars. In this garden shaded by enormous mangotrees, some round roofs created a bar area, a stage, a dancefloor and shelter for some restaurant tables. For me this was the best part of our trip. I would have loved to spend a few more nights here. The food was good - I had a pizza - the drinks were very good - beer was served in big bottles - and the show was fantastic. I loved the music - African and French - and the girls dancing on the stage were just perfect. I hated the clock moving so fast. Three more songs, two, one more song! We had to rush back to the hotel next door to grab our stuff and to get to the airport.
The whole night in the plane to Addid I was so sad that I had to leave the show, leave N\\\'Djamena, leave Africa. I had been really happy here. Chad is just so beautiful. I would love to come back one day, enjoy the \\\"Carnivore\\\" again and travel to the southern part of the country. |
2005 Dec by Veikko Huhtala*
We got our Chad visas in Addis Ababa in one day. Next day we had our Ethiopian Airlines flight to N'Djamena. Taxi driver took us to Novotel Hotel, which was most expensive, I thing. Anyway, room price was 250 USD and we had to stay there three nights, because there was no flights before back to Addis. Three times 250 is 750 USD. This is most money what we ever had paid for hotel. But there was good buffet breakfast included and we ate so much that we did not need lunch or dinner at all. Our hotel was located on the bank of Chari River. It was funny to think that there was so much water in Chad. I was been thinking that all country is very dry, as Sahara desert. But I was wrong. We did not go outside of capital, just walked up to the center to mail our postcards and to take some photos as well. |
1993 Sep by Jorge Sanchez
I have been in Chad two times. The second one was not interesting. I just arrived there in the year 2003 from Central African Republic by land rovers, which took me eleven days, and from Ndjamena I flew to Addis Ababa via Khartum.|
Here below is my diary of my first trip to Chad in 1993:
CHAD. In Adre the immigration clerks wanted to send me back to Sudan because of my lack of visa. After bribing them with some baksheesh I could meet their superior. I wished him in Arabic peace and long life to his dear family, what he appreciated. After one hour interrogation he ordered the driver of a truck to hold my passport until Abeche, and be delivered to the Police for an entry stamp. Abeche was a closed city. In Chad there are two military controls at the entrance of every town and two more at the exit, and at night there is curfew and you have to wait until the morning. The airport is protected by the French Army. I was granted a transit permit and left to Ndjamena in an overcrowded truck. We stopped in villages where I saw women Farchana with their hair cut below their ears and their lips tattooed in black. The Dades put knockers and rings in their mouth when they go to the market because their husbands prohibit them to talk. Finally I arrived at the gates of Ndjamena.
NDJAMENA. I made a mistake when, after been requested to empty my bag, I replied: “Again? I have just showed it in the previous control”. One of the soldiers then beat me with his pistol in my head. He called me “kafir”, ordered to enter in a hut and to undress. He took everything with him. I felt miserable and remembered that in that African journey I had lost part of my hearing sense in Mozambique Island when an insect got into my left ear and made me suffer horribly and cry during the two night’s journey in a dhow to Tanzania. I was robbed in Johannesburg, and in the Kinshasa of Mobutu I had to paint my face with black shoe polish to look like an African to escape from an ambush, etc., but never had I felt more in danger than in that hut. I started to shout: “Basta! I swear that I will never travel anymore! This is my last adventure!” After three hours I was freed and given back my bag and clothes except 10.000 CFA francs. I arrived to Ndjamena and stayed in the Catholic Mission.
LAKE CHAD. To proceed to Niger I needed a permit that I got in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. I reached Bol, in the Lake Chad. Up in the Tibesti live the Tubu, or Teda, feared warriors of the desert that do not allow foreigners to enter their territory. They all carry a dagger in their arm. In Bol live the descendants of the Sao, a race of tall people that cut their faces with knives. I attained Bagasola, then Liwa, and waited in vain for a truck. In the night children in the madrasas recite the Koran from wooden boards until they learn it by heart. After one week the chief of Liwa suggested me to hire two camels and a guide, but first it was essential to buy a gri gri (amulet) prepared by a marabu (wizard), otherwise the guide would refuse to go with me. When it was ready I hanged it around my neck and left. We travelled at night and slept in daytime. We were fed by the nomads and drank water from the wells. The camels ate acacias all the time. The third day I arrived to N’Guigmi, in Niger.
........................................... SECOND JOURNEY TO CHAD, COMING FROM CENTARLAFRICA REPUBLIC VIA CAMEROON: Once in Chad I could get a ride to the post of Baibokoum to get the entry stamp in Chad. It was already dark; therefore I had to spend there the night. Transport to Moundou was only during the morning to avoid the bandits. Then the next day I travelled in a jeep until Moundou, and after two more days we arrived to that city. During several more days, until finally I reached N’djamena, I slept in horrible huts without ventilation, ate worms and meat as hard as the sole of a shoe, and travelled like a sardine in jeeps with 40 PAX when its capacity was for 8 PAX, and with an armed guard with weapons in his teeth travelling with us to protect us. During the nights we slept in the villages for fear of bandits.